Measurement

Microscopic

Intramuscular architecture of muscles and other tissues

* fibre types with the Ziegan’s protocol (Stark & Schilling, 2010)
* fibre types with immunohistochemistry
* sarcomere length measurement
* blood cells

 

kollagen sarcomere ziegan fibretyp vessel blood

Macroscopic

Architecture of muscles, tendons, cartilage & aponeuroses

* pennation angle/vector field (Stark & Schilling, 2010; Stark et al., 2013; Kupczik et al., 2015)
    – for the force direction from fascicles/fibres/sarcomeres
* curvature & torsion with the Frenet-Serret-Formulas (Stark & Schilling, 2010)
* muscle/aponeuroses shapes (Stark & Schilling, 2010)

soleus